Industrial Fiber Optics, Inc.

Pre-blocking capacitor shunt protection employs a low-voltage thyristor across the input on the line side of the blocking capacitance. For International Telecommunication Union (ITU) compliance, the shunt device must be able to handle all K-series transverse test surges and have an operating voltage higher than the power cross test levels. GR-1089 Level 2 compliance also requires line-side overcurrent protection. This solution simply limits the maximum capacitor charge voltage during a transverse surge. Since the turn-on transition time of a thyristor is slow and the conducting impedance high in comparison to a GDT, the peak current in the line-side winding falls even lower. However, secondary protection is necessary since significant current will continue to generate on the line side. Due to the energy handling requirements of the thyristor in this exposed position, the secondary protection must be large with high capacitance. As a result, this solution generally is not an option on VDSL circuits with bandwidths greater than 17 MHz.

* Coverage: The range of a wireless link to reliably connect devices. The range is measured in meters from the access point (AP) and varies depends on the RF propagation environment. Factors, such as terrain, clutter type (urban, suburban, rural, etc.), interference, and local output power regulations determine the range capabilities of a specific radio.

The components discussed above can be combined to develop sophisticated CDS and MLS systems, for example a notional MILS-based gateway (see figure 2). This system is connected to two networks of different security classifications, filtering and routing data between them. It uses a separate partition for each network interface, containing a network stack and device driver running in user mode (boxes labeled Net”). This is achieved by the separation kernel mapping an Ethernet device into the appropriate partition, which then performs direct access via polled-mode I/O; this means that there is no undesirable device-driver code running in the separation kernel and there is no possibility of network traffic causing partition jitter through interrupts (which could be used as a covert timing channel). The system also has dedicated guards which filter the traffic in each direction, and communication between partitions is implemented using secure IPC (SIPC).

22k resistor color code

* Coverage: The range of a wireless link to reliably connect devices. The range is measured in meters from the access point (AP) and varies depends on the RF propagation environment. Factors, such as terrain, clutter type (urban, suburban, rural, etc.), interference, and local output power regulations determine the range capabilities of a specific radio.

The components discussed above can be combined to develop sophisticated CDS and MLS systems, for example a notional MILS-based gateway (see figure 2). This system is connected to two networks of different security classifications, filtering and routing data between them. It uses a separate partition for each network interface, containing a network stack and device driver running in user mode (boxes labeled Net”). This is achieved by the separation kernel mapping an Ethernet device into the appropriate partition, which then performs direct access via polled-mode I/O; this means that there is no undesirable device-driver code running in the separation kernel and there is no possibility of network traffic causing partition jitter through interrupts (which could be used as a covert timing channel). The system also has dedicated guards which filter the traffic in each direction, and communication between partitions is implemented using secure IPC (SIPC).

Moreover, many ADSL protection solutions do not work well for VDSL because they introduce frequency and voltage bias dependent distortions which degrade the higher data rate capability of the VDSL system. Designers are then confronted with the difficult task of effectively protecting the equipment against destructive surges, while achieving optimal transmission performance in normal operation. Until recently, the price to pay for improved circuit protection was degradation in performance. Today’s VDSL equipments can benefit from high-speed protector technology or, in simpler terms, a very fast, high voltage electronic current limiter to achieve an excellent circuit protection solution without compromising performance. In many instances, the costs of downtime, repair and warranty (both in financial and customer satisfaction terms) far exceed the modest cost increase needed for this improved circuit protection.

The first three weeks are devoted to teaching Bluespec SystemVerilog (BSV), an ESL hardware description language that is based on the concept of guarded atomic actions (a high-level abstraction for describing complex concurrent systems). BSV allows students to quickly and concisely capture their designs at a high level of abstraction (see Figure 1). These high-level, cycle-accurate representations can be simulated an order of magnitude faster than their standard Verilog equivalents. Of particular interest is the fact that the designs can be highly parameterized so as to facilitate architectural exploration.

Figure 4.36: The OPA2134 working in shunt-feedback mode. The THD is below the noise until frequency reaches 10 kHz; it appears to be lower at 5 Vrms simply because the noise floor is relatively lower.

PFC-W0603LF-03-93R1-B_Vishay / Dale

* Coverage: The range of a wireless link to reliably connect devices. The range is measured in meters from the access point (AP) and varies depends on the RF propagation environment. Factors, such as terrain, clutter type (urban, suburban, rural, etc.), interference, and local output power regulations determine the range capabilities of a specific radio.

The components discussed above can be combined to develop sophisticated CDS and MLS systems, for example a notional MILS-based gateway (see figure 2). This system is connected to two networks of different security classifications, filtering and routing data between them. It uses a separate partition for each network interface, containing a network stack and device driver running in user mode (boxes labeled Net”). This is achieved by the separation kernel mapping an Ethernet device into the appropriate partition, which then performs direct access via polled-mode I/O; this means that there is no undesirable device-driver code running in the separation kernel and there is no possibility of network traffic causing partition jitter through interrupts (which could be used as a covert timing channel). The system also has dedicated guards which filter the traffic in each direction, and communication between partitions is implemented using secure IPC (SIPC).

Moreover, many ADSL protection solutions do not work well for VDSL because they introduce frequency and voltage bias dependent distortions which degrade the higher data rate capability of the VDSL system. Designers are then confronted with the difficult task of effectively protecting the equipment against destructive surges, while achieving optimal transmission performance in normal operation. Until recently, the price to pay for improved circuit protection was degradation in performance. Today’s VDSL equipments can benefit from high-speed protector technology or, in simpler terms, a very fast, high voltage electronic current limiter to achieve an excellent circuit protection solution without compromising performance. In many instances, the costs of downtime, repair and warranty (both in financial and customer satisfaction terms) far exceed the modest cost increase needed for this improved circuit protection.

The first three weeks are devoted to teaching Bluespec SystemVerilog (BSV), an ESL hardware description language that is based on the concept of guarded atomic actions (a high-level abstraction for describing complex concurrent systems). BSV allows students to quickly and concisely capture their designs at a high level of abstraction (see Figure 1). These high-level, cycle-accurate representations can be simulated an order of magnitude faster than their standard Verilog equivalents. Of particular interest is the fact that the designs can be highly parameterized so as to facilitate architectural exploration.

The components discussed above can be combined to develop sophisticated CDS and MLS systems, for example a notional MILS-based gateway (see figure 2). This system is connected to two networks of different security classifications, filtering and routing data between them. It uses a separate partition for each network interface, containing a network stack and device driver running in user mode (boxes labeled Net”). This is achieved by the separation kernel mapping an Ethernet device into the appropriate partition, which then performs direct access via polled-mode I/O; this means that there is no undesirable device-driver code running in the separation kernel and there is no possibility of network traffic causing partition jitter through interrupts (which could be used as a covert timing channel). The system also has dedicated guards which filter the traffic in each direction, and communication between partitions is implemented using secure IPC (SIPC).

Moreover, many ADSL protection solutions do not work well for VDSL because they introduce frequency and voltage bias dependent distortions which degrade the higher data rate capability of the VDSL system. Designers are then confronted with the difficult task of effectively protecting the equipment against destructive surges, while achieving optimal transmission performance in normal operation. Until recently, the price to pay for improved circuit protection was degradation in performance. Today’s VDSL equipments can benefit from high-speed protector technology or, in simpler terms, a very fast, high voltage electronic current limiter to achieve an excellent circuit protection solution without compromising performance. In many instances, the costs of downtime, repair and warranty (both in financial and customer satisfaction terms) far exceed the modest cost increase needed for this improved circuit protection.

The first three weeks are devoted to teaching Bluespec SystemVerilog (BSV), an ESL hardware description language that is based on the concept of guarded atomic actions (a high-level abstraction for describing complex concurrent systems). BSV allows students to quickly and concisely capture their designs at a high level of abstraction (see Figure 1). These high-level, cycle-accurate representations can be simulated an order of magnitude faster than their standard Verilog equivalents. Of particular interest is the fact that the designs can be highly parameterized so as to facilitate architectural exploration.

inspectorbots

Moreover, many ADSL protection solutions do not work well for VDSL because they introduce frequency and voltage bias dependent distortions which degrade the higher data rate capability of the VDSL system. Designers are then confronted with the difficult task of effectively protecting the equipment against destructive surges, while achieving optimal transmission performance in normal operation. Until recently, the price to pay for improved circuit protection was degradation in performance. Today’s VDSL equipments can benefit from high-speed protector technology or, in simpler terms, a very fast, high voltage electronic current limiter to achieve an excellent circuit protection solution without compromising performance. In many instances, the costs of downtime, repair and warranty (both in financial and customer satisfaction terms) far exceed the modest cost increase needed for this improved circuit protection.

The first three weeks are devoted to teaching Bluespec SystemVerilog (BSV), an ESL hardware description language that is based on the concept of guarded atomic actions (a high-level abstraction for describing complex concurrent systems). BSV allows students to quickly and concisely capture their designs at a high level of abstraction (see Figure 1). These high-level, cycle-accurate representations can be simulated an order of magnitude faster than their standard Verilog equivalents. Of particular interest is the fact that the designs can be highly parameterized so as to facilitate architectural exploration.

The first three weeks are devoted to teaching Bluespec SystemVerilog (BSV), an ESL hardware description language that is based on the concept of guarded atomic actions (a high-level abstraction for describing complex concurrent systems). BSV allows students to quickly and concisely capture their designs at a high level of abstraction (see Figure 1). These high-level, cycle-accurate representations can be simulated an order of magnitude faster than their standard Verilog equivalents. Of particular interest is the fact that the designs can be highly parameterized so as to facilitate architectural exploration.

Figure 4.36: The OPA2134 working in shunt-feedback mode. The THD is below the noise until frequency reaches 10 kHz; it appears to be lower at 5 Vrms simply because the noise floor is relatively lower.

Just as radiologists must know human anatomy thoroughly before they can interpret a radiograph, so must medical device manufacturers understand the nature of their devices’ constituent parts and how these parts interact with the x-ray inspection process. For example, some manufacturers of molded catheter hubs have found that without a clear x-ray image, internal voids and defects in the hub that could harbor blood clots would not be detected. The polymers used for these moldings can exhibit very low x-ray opacity, making detection difficult.

Two assumptions have become accepted truths in SoC planning: first, that the way forward involves 3DICs; and second, that 3DICs require through-silicon vias (TSVs.) One result has been a tremendous focus on the challenges of TSVs, and a growing realization of just how formidable those problems really will be in production. But what if the first assumption is true and the second one is false? One of the hottest water-cooler topics at Semicon West this year was a PowerPoint pitch from a new venture called MonolithIC 3D. In it, the company argued exactly this point.