Radios

Joe Biondo is Marketing Manager at Bosch Rexroth- Electric Drives and Controls

In the case of embedded blocks such as multipliers, adders, memory, and microprocessor cores, different vendors offer alternative flavors” of these blocks with different recipes” of ingredients. (Much like different brands of chocolate chip cookies featuring larger/smaller chocolate chips, for example, some FPGA families will have bigger/better/badder embedded RAM blocks, while others might feature more multipliers, or support more I/O standards, or … the list goes on).

Industrial drive systems use Hall-effect sensors, resolvers or encoders to measure the rotor position, but this is not a practical solution in appliances such as air conditioners. Besides the cost issue, there is the problem of mounting the sensors inside the sealed compressor housing that contains the motor and compressor pump. Sensorless algorithms use some measurement of the motor currents or voltages to estimate rotor position. Most of these algorithms rely on the fact that the winding's back emf is a function of rotor position and so operate reliably above some minimum speed.

A properly designed power distribution system will have a low impedance to maintain voltage stability. The result is that return signal currents may sometimes use the power plane(s) for the return path rather than using the ground plane. There are a few things we can do to encourage the return currents to flow in the ground plane and to allow return currents to flow in the power planes without problems.

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In the case of embedded blocks such as multipliers, adders, memory, and microprocessor cores, different vendors offer alternative flavors” of these blocks with different recipes” of ingredients. (Much like different brands of chocolate chip cookies featuring larger/smaller chocolate chips, for example, some FPGA families will have bigger/better/badder embedded RAM blocks, while others might feature more multipliers, or support more I/O standards, or … the list goes on).

Industrial drive systems use Hall-effect sensors, resolvers or encoders to measure the rotor position, but this is not a practical solution in appliances such as air conditioners. Besides the cost issue, there is the problem of mounting the sensors inside the sealed compressor housing that contains the motor and compressor pump. Sensorless algorithms use some measurement of the motor currents or voltages to estimate rotor position. Most of these algorithms rely on the fact that the winding's back emf is a function of rotor position and so operate reliably above some minimum speed.

A properly designed power distribution system will have a low impedance to maintain voltage stability. The result is that return signal currents may sometimes use the power plane(s) for the return path rather than using the ground plane. There are a few things we can do to encourage the return currents to flow in the ground plane and to allow return currents to flow in the power planes without problems.

Extending this example to other DSP algorithms and processors We can easily leverage the framework of this example to other algorithms and processors. For example, we can build a Simulink model of a denoising algorithm such as the one shown in Figures 5a and 5b and generate code for it using the process we used here. This case, in which Real-Time Workshop Embedded Coder generates approximately 1,600 lines of C code for the two-stage denoising algorithm, is perhaps a better illustration of the benefits of code generation, as 1,600 lines is a significant amount of hand coding. This denoising algorithm can still be called with a single call to a generated _step() function. The single points of declaration and entry for the code generated by Real-Time Workshop Embedded Coder make it easy to reuse your manually written framework for many audio processing algorithms. Using the process described in this paper, other development environments such as Analog Devices VisualDSP++ can collect the generated code as a project that the Blackfin and other fixed-point processors can implement.

Under the same conditions, if the range of the Chipcon radio were 100 meters, the range of the Atmel radio would be 280 meters. Therefore, a difference in link budget of just 9 dBm increases the range by nearly 3 times. This means that about 1/3 as many nodes would be required to cover the same network area, using the Atmel radio as using the Chipcon radio.

Miss Part I? Not to worry. Just click here: Part I.

MTSW-112-08-T-S-300_Datasheet PDF

Industrial drive systems use Hall-effect sensors, resolvers or encoders to measure the rotor position, but this is not a practical solution in appliances such as air conditioners. Besides the cost issue, there is the problem of mounting the sensors inside the sealed compressor housing that contains the motor and compressor pump. Sensorless algorithms use some measurement of the motor currents or voltages to estimate rotor position. Most of these algorithms rely on the fact that the winding's back emf is a function of rotor position and so operate reliably above some minimum speed.

A properly designed power distribution system will have a low impedance to maintain voltage stability. The result is that return signal currents may sometimes use the power plane(s) for the return path rather than using the ground plane. There are a few things we can do to encourage the return currents to flow in the ground plane and to allow return currents to flow in the power planes without problems.

Extending this example to other DSP algorithms and processors We can easily leverage the framework of this example to other algorithms and processors. For example, we can build a Simulink model of a denoising algorithm such as the one shown in Figures 5a and 5b and generate code for it using the process we used here. This case, in which Real-Time Workshop Embedded Coder generates approximately 1,600 lines of C code for the two-stage denoising algorithm, is perhaps a better illustration of the benefits of code generation, as 1,600 lines is a significant amount of hand coding. This denoising algorithm can still be called with a single call to a generated _step() function. The single points of declaration and entry for the code generated by Real-Time Workshop Embedded Coder make it easy to reuse your manually written framework for many audio processing algorithms. Using the process described in this paper, other development environments such as Analog Devices VisualDSP++ can collect the generated code as a project that the Blackfin and other fixed-point processors can implement.

Under the same conditions, if the range of the Chipcon radio were 100 meters, the range of the Atmel radio would be 280 meters. Therefore, a difference in link budget of just 9 dBm increases the range by nearly 3 times. This means that about 1/3 as many nodes would be required to cover the same network area, using the Atmel radio as using the Chipcon radio.

A properly designed power distribution system will have a low impedance to maintain voltage stability. The result is that return signal currents may sometimes use the power plane(s) for the return path rather than using the ground plane. There are a few things we can do to encourage the return currents to flow in the ground plane and to allow return currents to flow in the power planes without problems.

Extending this example to other DSP algorithms and processors We can easily leverage the framework of this example to other algorithms and processors. For example, we can build a Simulink model of a denoising algorithm such as the one shown in Figures 5a and 5b and generate code for it using the process we used here. This case, in which Real-Time Workshop Embedded Coder generates approximately 1,600 lines of C code for the two-stage denoising algorithm, is perhaps a better illustration of the benefits of code generation, as 1,600 lines is a significant amount of hand coding. This denoising algorithm can still be called with a single call to a generated _step() function. The single points of declaration and entry for the code generated by Real-Time Workshop Embedded Coder make it easy to reuse your manually written framework for many audio processing algorithms. Using the process described in this paper, other development environments such as Analog Devices VisualDSP++ can collect the generated code as a project that the Blackfin and other fixed-point processors can implement.

Under the same conditions, if the range of the Chipcon radio were 100 meters, the range of the Atmel radio would be 280 meters. Therefore, a difference in link budget of just 9 dBm increases the range by nearly 3 times. This means that about 1/3 as many nodes would be required to cover the same network area, using the Atmel radio as using the Chipcon radio.

double layer capacitance

Extending this example to other DSP algorithms and processors We can easily leverage the framework of this example to other algorithms and processors. For example, we can build a Simulink model of a denoising algorithm such as the one shown in Figures 5a and 5b and generate code for it using the process we used here. This case, in which Real-Time Workshop Embedded Coder generates approximately 1,600 lines of C code for the two-stage denoising algorithm, is perhaps a better illustration of the benefits of code generation, as 1,600 lines is a significant amount of hand coding. This denoising algorithm can still be called with a single call to a generated _step() function. The single points of declaration and entry for the code generated by Real-Time Workshop Embedded Coder make it easy to reuse your manually written framework for many audio processing algorithms. Using the process described in this paper, other development environments such as Analog Devices VisualDSP++ can collect the generated code as a project that the Blackfin and other fixed-point processors can implement.

Under the same conditions, if the range of the Chipcon radio were 100 meters, the range of the Atmel radio would be 280 meters. Therefore, a difference in link budget of just 9 dBm increases the range by nearly 3 times. This means that about 1/3 as many nodes would be required to cover the same network area, using the Atmel radio as using the Chipcon radio.

Under the same conditions, if the range of the Chipcon radio were 100 meters, the range of the Atmel radio would be 280 meters. Therefore, a difference in link budget of just 9 dBm increases the range by nearly 3 times. This means that about 1/3 as many nodes would be required to cover the same network area, using the Atmel radio as using the Chipcon radio.

Miss Part I? Not to worry. Just click here: Part I.

In the gain-versus-frequency plot in Figure 3, the cut-off frequency (fCUT-OFF ) for Butterworth and Bessel filters of a low-pass filter is at the frequency where the response is 3 dB below the gain of the filter at dc. For a Chebyshev filter, the cut-off frequency is the final point where the response leaves the ripple band ε.

Any number of global IPv6 unicast addresses can be configured on an interface. Remember: Unlike IPv4, where the latest configured address overwrites the existing one, in IPv6 the new address is just added to the existing one. If the intent is to remove the current address, you must do so explicitly.