Bergquist

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Conta-ClipBy Fingerprint Cards ABWith US Relays and Technology, Inc.

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About the Author Jeff Hutchins is the Edito of the Optical Internetworking Forum's Tunable Laser MSA Implementation Agreement. He is also a senior applications engineering manager/program manager at Iolon. Jeff has an MSEE and BSEE from Stanford University and can be reached at .

Over the past year, a different type of chip implementation has been garnering a lot of attention from IC vendors and designers alike. Known as Structured ASIC or Platform ASIC (SA/PA), this design platform, a hybrid of cell-based and FPGA design technologies, targets mid-range chip volumes, in the approximate 10K-100K units per year range. SA/PA chips share a common feature—blocks of silicon IP (SIP) that the designer personalizes” with a subset of the chip's total mask set. The resultant chip sports a faster design cycle and, thus, a faster time to market (TTM), along with less expensive NRE than an ASIC. In addition, SA/PA chips exhibit higher performance and cheaper per-unit cost than an FPGA. Read on to see how SA/PA design makes sense for many applications.

FPGAs today are generally used with a design flow that mimics the ASIC flow.

Media ProcessorsMedia processors are a specialized class of programmable processors designed for high performance in audio and video applications. Media processors are based on powerful, highly-parallel processor cores that are very efficient at video-processing tasks. In addition, media processors often include multiple video accelerators in the form of programmable coprocessors or fixed-function hardware. Media processors also tend to have multiple blocks of on-chip memory and high memory bandwidth. Figure 3 shows an example media processor.

Future Technology Devices International, Ltd.

1788050000_Datasheet PDF

Cogent Computer SystemsBy Bridgelux, Inc.With Softec

Over the past year, a different type of chip implementation has been garnering a lot of attention from IC vendors and designers alike. Known as Structured ASIC or Platform ASIC (SA/PA), this design platform, a hybrid of cell-based and FPGA design technologies, targets mid-range chip volumes, in the approximate 10K-100K units per year range. SA/PA chips share a common feature—blocks of silicon IP (SIP) that the designer personalizes” with a subset of the chip's total mask set. The resultant chip sports a faster design cycle and, thus, a faster time to market (TTM), along with less expensive NRE than an ASIC. In addition, SA/PA chips exhibit higher performance and cheaper per-unit cost than an FPGA. Read on to see how SA/PA design makes sense for many applications.

FPGAs today are generally used with a design flow that mimics the ASIC flow.

FPGAs today are generally used with a design flow that mimics the ASIC flow.

Media ProcessorsMedia processors are a specialized class of programmable processors designed for high performance in audio and video applications. Media processors are based on powerful, highly-parallel processor cores that are very efficient at video-processing tasks. In addition, media processors often include multiple video accelerators in the form of programmable coprocessors or fixed-function hardware. Media processors also tend to have multiple blocks of on-chip memory and high memory bandwidth. Figure 3 shows an example media processor.

Technology Improvements Lead to Headaches In a typical CMOS fabrication process, the leakage current Iq tends to be negligible and thus has traditionally been ignored by designers. Leakage current comprises the static component of CMOS power consumption (Iq V), as opposed to the dynamic component (CL V2 f). It is static” in the sense that this power is consumed even when chip activity is zero (f = 0). Unfortunately, leakage current cannot be ignored for much longer. As CMOS fabrication technology improves by shrinking distances between chip features, leakage current increases dramatically because electrons can literally leak into layers of material that are supposed to be insulating. Today, most chips use 0.25- and 0.18-micron CMOS technology. As the semiconductor industry transitions to smaller and faster 0.13- and 0.09-micron (90 nanometer) CMOS, the required supply voltage goes down and the achievable frequency goes up, but leakage current grows. When we reach 65 nm and 45 nm CMOS technology in a few years, some experts believe that the leakage current will be so high that Iq V will account for as much as 50% of total chip power consumption.

The 2004 and 2005 forecast scenarios are largely contingent on the fervor of the semiconductor industry recovery now under way. Most EDA power users have already completed or are in the process of conducting their RTL implementation software retooling. The next few years of EDA growth depend on the timing of similar tool upgrades for mainstream users and the next investment by power users into silicon virtual-prototype, intelligent-testbench and ESL tools.

Stellar Labs

electrolytic capacitor definition

Circuit Scribe/Electroninks Writeables Inc.By CBM America CorporationWith STMicroelectronics

Media ProcessorsMedia processors are a specialized class of programmable processors designed for high performance in audio and video applications. Media processors are based on powerful, highly-parallel processor cores that are very efficient at video-processing tasks. In addition, media processors often include multiple video accelerators in the form of programmable coprocessors or fixed-function hardware. Media processors also tend to have multiple blocks of on-chip memory and high memory bandwidth. Figure 3 shows an example media processor.

Technology Improvements Lead to Headaches In a typical CMOS fabrication process, the leakage current Iq tends to be negligible and thus has traditionally been ignored by designers. Leakage current comprises the static component of CMOS power consumption (Iq V), as opposed to the dynamic component (CL V2 f). It is static” in the sense that this power is consumed even when chip activity is zero (f = 0). Unfortunately, leakage current cannot be ignored for much longer. As CMOS fabrication technology improves by shrinking distances between chip features, leakage current increases dramatically because electrons can literally leak into layers of material that are supposed to be insulating. Today, most chips use 0.25- and 0.18-micron CMOS technology. As the semiconductor industry transitions to smaller and faster 0.13- and 0.09-micron (90 nanometer) CMOS, the required supply voltage goes down and the achievable frequency goes up, but leakage current grows. When we reach 65 nm and 45 nm CMOS technology in a few years, some experts believe that the leakage current will be so high that Iq V will account for as much as 50% of total chip power consumption.

The 2004 and 2005 forecast scenarios are largely contingent on the fervor of the semiconductor industry recovery now under way. Most EDA power users have already completed or are in the process of conducting their RTL implementation software retooling. The next few years of EDA growth depend on the timing of similar tool upgrades for mainstream users and the next investment by power users into silicon virtual-prototype, intelligent-testbench and ESL tools.

And it isn't just unlicensed systems that are expected to adapt their waveforms. In an attempt to squeeze out every possible bit per second/Hz, many newer standards provide mechanisms for adapting their waveforms to changing channel and interference conditions. 1xEVDO includes mechanisms for performing dynamic scheduling and for adapting modulation and coding in response to changing channel conditions. Similarly, HSDPA and GPRS provide mechanisms for performing code rate and modulation adaptation. It isn't too much of a leap to conclude that this adaptation could begin to be adjusted based on the experience” of the radio system, initiating the start of cognition for radios.

GradConn

59065-4-U-05-E_Datasheet PDF

MicrossBy Allied ComponentsWith Tusonix

Technology Improvements Lead to Headaches In a typical CMOS fabrication process, the leakage current Iq tends to be negligible and thus has traditionally been ignored by designers. Leakage current comprises the static component of CMOS power consumption (Iq V), as opposed to the dynamic component (CL V2 f). It is static” in the sense that this power is consumed even when chip activity is zero (f = 0). Unfortunately, leakage current cannot be ignored for much longer. As CMOS fabrication technology improves by shrinking distances between chip features, leakage current increases dramatically because electrons can literally leak into layers of material that are supposed to be insulating. Today, most chips use 0.25- and 0.18-micron CMOS technology. As the semiconductor industry transitions to smaller and faster 0.13- and 0.09-micron (90 nanometer) CMOS, the required supply voltage goes down and the achievable frequency goes up, but leakage current grows. When we reach 65 nm and 45 nm CMOS technology in a few years, some experts believe that the leakage current will be so high that Iq V will account for as much as 50% of total chip power consumption.

The 2004 and 2005 forecast scenarios are largely contingent on the fervor of the semiconductor industry recovery now under way. Most EDA power users have already completed or are in the process of conducting their RTL implementation software retooling. The next few years of EDA growth depend on the timing of similar tool upgrades for mainstream users and the next investment by power users into silicon virtual-prototype, intelligent-testbench and ESL tools.

And it isn't just unlicensed systems that are expected to adapt their waveforms. In an attempt to squeeze out every possible bit per second/Hz, many newer standards provide mechanisms for adapting their waveforms to changing channel and interference conditions. 1xEVDO includes mechanisms for performing dynamic scheduling and for adapting modulation and coding in response to changing channel conditions. Similarly, HSDPA and GPRS provide mechanisms for performing code rate and modulation adaptation. It isn't too much of a leap to conclude that this adaptation could begin to be adjusted based on the experience” of the radio system, initiating the start of cognition for radios.

Wrap Up As we look forward, the next generation of ATAs will need to carefully address currently unresolved provisioning and security issues. Designers need to examine the hardware and software impacts of these requirements and ensure existing platforms provide the extensibility to future-proof for these considerations. Single function ATAs in the market today are likely not the long-term solution but they will provide the backbone by which the first wave of consumer VoIP will be rolled out over. As the market adopts the technology, we as the designers need to continue innovating the features, services and security that will ensure the successful long-term viability.

Phoenix America

surge components

PULSBy Micro/sysWith CBM America Corporation

The 2004 and 2005 forecast scenarios are largely contingent on the fervor of the semiconductor industry recovery now under way. Most EDA power users have already completed or are in the process of conducting their RTL implementation software retooling. The next few years of EDA growth depend on the timing of similar tool upgrades for mainstream users and the next investment by power users into silicon virtual-prototype, intelligent-testbench and ESL tools.

And it isn't just unlicensed systems that are expected to adapt their waveforms. In an attempt to squeeze out every possible bit per second/Hz, many newer standards provide mechanisms for adapting their waveforms to changing channel and interference conditions. 1xEVDO includes mechanisms for performing dynamic scheduling and for adapting modulation and coding in response to changing channel conditions. Similarly, HSDPA and GPRS provide mechanisms for performing code rate and modulation adaptation. It isn't too much of a leap to conclude that this adaptation could begin to be adjusted based on the experience” of the radio system, initiating the start of cognition for radios.

And it isn't just unlicensed systems that are expected to adapt their waveforms. In an attempt to squeeze out every possible bit per second/Hz, many newer standards provide mechanisms for adapting their waveforms to changing channel and interference conditions. 1xEVDO includes mechanisms for performing dynamic scheduling and for adapting modulation and coding in response to changing channel conditions. Similarly, HSDPA and GPRS provide mechanisms for performing code rate and modulation adaptation. It isn't too much of a leap to conclude that this adaptation could begin to be adjusted based on the experience” of the radio system, initiating the start of cognition for radios.

Wrap Up As we look forward, the next generation of ATAs will need to carefully address currently unresolved provisioning and security issues. Designers need to examine the hardware and software impacts of these requirements and ensure existing platforms provide the extensibility to future-proof for these considerations. Single function ATAs in the market today are likely not the long-term solution but they will provide the backbone by which the first wave of consumer VoIP will be rolled out over. As the market adopts the technology, we as the designers need to continue innovating the features, services and security that will ensure the successful long-term viability.

All Simulink blocks do not have color and most designs will utilize the Simulink/DSP sources and sinks, which will drive and test the design. Any Simulink block (although not hardware realizable unless hand-created in VHDL) can be interfaced to the Xilinx blockset with the aid of the gateway blocks to convert between doubles” and fixed point numbers.”

Hardwired accelerators Hardwired accelerators implement key signal processing tasks directly in fixed-function hardware, rather than in software. As explained in the discussion of ASICs, dedicated hardware offers the ultimate in energy efficiency. Hence, application processors employing hardware accelerators typically offer better energy efficiency than other application processors. This approach also offers straightforward software development: using a hardware accelerator typically requires little more than passing the accelerator a few parameters.

Luminus Devices

XC4VSX55-10FF1148C_Datasheet PDF

Wrap Up As we look forward, the next generation of ATAs will need to carefully address currently unresolved provisioning and security issues. Designers need to examine the hardware and software impacts of these requirements and ensure existing platforms provide the extensibility to future-proof for these considerations. Single function ATAs in the market today are likely not the long-term solution but they will provide the backbone by which the first wave of consumer VoIP will be rolled out over. As the market adopts the technology, we as the designers need to continue innovating the features, services and security that will ensure the successful long-term viability.

All Simulink blocks do not have color and most designs will utilize the Simulink/DSP sources and sinks, which will drive and test the design. Any Simulink block (although not hardware realizable unless hand-created in VHDL) can be interfaced to the Xilinx blockset with the aid of the gateway blocks to convert between doubles” and fixed point numbers.”

Hardwired accelerators Hardwired accelerators implement key signal processing tasks directly in fixed-function hardware, rather than in software. As explained in the discussion of ASICs, dedicated hardware offers the ultimate in energy efficiency. Hence, application processors employing hardware accelerators typically offer better energy efficiency than other application processors. This approach also offers straightforward software development: using a hardware accelerator typically requires little more than passing the accelerator a few parameters.

power transformers

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Unictron

RECOM Power

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Simcom

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